1. a b “Altria to spin off Philip Morris International”. AP/MSNBC. 29 August 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
  2. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2008 the MPOWER package. Geneva World Health Organization. 2008. ISBN 978 92 4 159628 2.
  3. “Where to find us.” Philip Morris International. Retrieved on 19 October 2009.
  4. “PMI Factsheet”. PMI. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
  5. 1
  6. Maria Kiselyova (4 December 2013). “Philip Morris, Japan Tobacco spend $1.5 billion on Russian distributor”. Reuters.
  7. Philip Morris International Board of Directors
  8. “Our Charitable Giving Program”. PMI. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
  9. “R&D at PMI”. PMI. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
  10. Klya Tienhaara and Thomas Faunce Gillard Must Repel Big Tobacco’s Latest Attack. Canberra Times 28 June 2011
  11. “Plain packaging challenge faces High Court”. ABC News. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  12. Rory Carroll. Uruguay Bows to pressure over anti smoking legislation. Guardian 27 July 2010
  13. Philip Morris International Overhauls Labor Protections. Human Rights Watch May 22, 2011
  14. Elizabeth A. Smith, Ph.D. and Ruth E. Malone, R.N., Ph.D., F.A.A.N., Philip Morris s Health Information Web Site Appears Responsible but Undermines Public Health, Public Health Nurs.
  15. Martha N. Gardner, PhD and Allan M. Brandt, PhD, The Doctors Choice Is America s Choice, Am J Public Health.

Smoking in indonesia – wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Kretek is credited as an invention by Nitisemito of Kudus, an industrial town in Central Java. It emerged in the late 19th century in Java. The practice was to roll, by hand, a compound of tobacco, cloves and cocoa in a dry corn husk wrap, which gives a honeyed flavour. It was Nitisemito who introduced cigarette papers in place of corn husk. Following this simple innovation, a Kretek manufacturing factory was set up in Sumatra. The first brand of cigarette produced in this factory, “Bal Tiga” (three balls), became very popular, and as result the economy of Kudus prospered and the inventor became a wealthy man. The inventor popularized his brand of cigarettes through a concerted media campaign, even establishing his own radio station for the purpose. He touted his habit of smoking kretek as the cure for his asthma. However, intense competition (25 manufactures are now reported in the city and its suburbs) and his ham handed management resulted in his becoming a pauper at the end, when he died in 1953. 9 Another local brand, which became very popular in the 1980s, is the Gudang Garam brand of Kretek. Chinese businessmen who are credited with establishing this brand of Kretek from a modest beginning in the 1920s produced 40 billion cigarettes in the 1980s. Other business enterprises competing with this brand tried to discredit the brand by attributing use of cannabis in addition to cloves and tobacco. It has the distinction of being the largest single employer in Indonesia. 10

Kretek is very popular in rural areas as this type of cigarette is cheap. It burns for a long period. However, when they are kept away they douse automatically. 11 They, however, do not cause any oral lacerations. Now, cigarette smoking has largely replaced betel chewing. 12

Kretek is defined as onomatopoeic . Its literal meaning is to crackle, which is the sound that is produced when it is burnt and inhaled. 9

Kretek cigarettes have harmful effects as it contains high concentration of tar and nicotine, almost four times that of ordinary cigarettes. Some countries have banned marketing this brand of cigarettes. The other harmful effect mentioned is from the clove oil used in making Kretek. The clove oil or eugenol is harmful to the lungs. The Indonesian Health Department reported in 2000 that 200,000 people get affected by cancer every year but its exact relation to smoking is not evaluated. This brand of cigarette is so popular that 5% of the national revenue is from this source, next only to the revenue from oil. Indonesia also records the highest growth of cigarette industry in the world, accounting for 4% of the world consumption. 9

While cigarette smoking is declining throughout the world, in Indonesia the industry is thriving. Manufacturers of Marlborough brand of cigarettes established a Kretek brand manufacturing factory in Indonesia in 2008. For over 50 years, Djarum has been another big brand international manufacturer of Kretek here. It has a research and development unit to improve on the quality of their cigarettes. Malaysia and USA are said to be two of their important markets. 8

Kretek was initially a habit of the lower classes of society. However, it has now become very popular among the “middle class and intelligentsia, to the extent that it has become very de rigueur and a mark of Indonesian ness.” 10

Kretek cigarettes are mostly slimmer than normal King Size cigarettes giving them a more modern and contemporary look and feel.

Harmful effects and regulations edit

Tobacco smoking in Indonesia is said to claim 300,000 lives every year. 13 Even though the country has required “no smoking” signs in health care units, educational institutions and in public transportation system, there is no ban on smoking in government and private offices, restaurants and bars. Tax exemptions in the country provide an incentive to the manufacturers to advertise the sale of cigarettes as compared to other countries in the region, in spite of the World Bank suggesting higher tax rates. As a result, tobacco manufacturers almost run cigarette advertisements for free. The advertisements, although warning of the ill effects of smoking, do not show any pictures, nor are the warning texts printed at strategic places on the cigarette packets. All these factors, plus its low cost, have contributed to the extensive proliferation of cigarette smoking in the country among people of all ages. 2 So much so, that even a two year old child picked up the habit of smoking two packs of cigarettes a day in his fishing village, where every one smokes. It was reported that the child’s father initiated his son into this habit at the age of 18 months. However, press reports indicate that the child has been placed in rehabilitation by keeping him in a different environment under the care of a psychologist, and as a result the child has given up smoking. 14 The government of Indonesia is now contemplating introducing regulations that would ban the advertising of cigarettes, smoking in public places and selling cigarettes to children. 5

References edit